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What is a biofilm?

What is biofilm?

Are you suddenly using more chemicals in your spa? This could indicate a build-up of biofilm in your spa. Biofilm is a rapidly reproducing colony of various microorganisms surrounded by their protective mucus in an aqueous environment. They grow on surfaces where water does not flow and prefer environments where the water is stagnant and lacks disinfectant. 

How biofilm forms in a spa?

In spas, biofilm is often found in pipes where water flow has been stopped or significantly reduced (e.g., bypass valves isolate some therapy return lines and waterfall flow is often stopped completely, etc.). In pipes with no consistent flow, sanitizer rapidly decreases and microorganisms move to the surface of the pipes where they begin to form biofilms.

Biofilms also establish and grow in bathtubs with inconsistent or no sanitizer residuals. Ineffective or incomplete water maintenance systems or lack of attention can also lead to biofilm formation. Biofilm becomes visible after water is returned through insulated pipes and sheared off and « blown » into the spa. These small floating fragments of biofilm look like tiny pieces of skin or torn pieces of tissue paper.

How to eliminate and prevent it

Treatment: (do not use the spa during this process)

  1. Make sure the spa water flows freely through all pipes, waterfalls, etc.
  2. Properly balance the spa water, paying particular attention to balancing the pH in the proper range of 7.4 to 7.6.
  3. Increase the bromine or chlorine level to 5 – 10 ppm. It is not necessary to exceed 10 ppm. Maintain this high level for the next 3 to 5 days. Use the bromine granules Dazzle or Mineraluxe or the stabilized chlorine granulesDazzle to raise the level and maintain it. 
  4. IMPORTANT**Test regularly to ensure the level remains consistently between 5 and 10 ppm.
  5. Apply 150 ml of Dazzle Algae Clear 60 for 1000 L of water after the chlorine or bromine level has been raised
  6. Activate the high-speed pump(s) periodically over the next 3 to 5 days to clear the pipes of biofilm and circulate it through the water. The more frequently the pump is run at high speed, the faster the cleaning will be.
  7. To speed up the results, you can add 2 cubes of Mineraluxe.
  8. After a minimum of 3 days, if the water is clear and signs of biofilms have diminished or disappeared, proceed to the next step.
  9. With chlorine or bromine levels below 5.0 ppm, apply 1 bottle of Mineraluxe Cleanse and Drain. Remove the cartridge and wait at least 24 hours before proceeding to the next step.
  10. Clean the filter(s) with Mineraluxe Filter Revive. See video here
  11. After a minimum of 24 hours, drain the spa, clean the inside of the spa with Dazzle Tub Cleanse and follow the proper procedure to fill the spa.


  1. Always return the bypass valve(s) to positions that allow circulation through all therapy jet lines after spa use.
  2. Strongly consider using Mineraluxe as a routine maintenance system. Mineraluxe is exceptional at preventing biofilm formation in spas, and has many other benefits. See video here!!
  3. Maintain pH and chlorine or bromine levels within appropriate ranges at all times.
  4. Use Mineraluxe Cleanse and Drain before each drain.